大学英语四六级写作技巧及应对策略

发布于:2021-06-19 03:09:25

大学英语四六级写作技巧及应对策略
任书梅 2009.11.3 第六会议室

讲座内容 四六级写作要求 评分级别及标准 语言组织技巧 四级作文考试类型 短文写作的应对策略 四级写作要求
《大学英语课程教学要求》 中对作文的一般要求 (四级) 是“能完成一般性写作任务, 能描述个人经历、观感、情感和发生的事件等,能写常见的应用文,能就一般性话 题或提纲在半小时内写出 120 词的短文,内容基本完整,用词恰当,语意连贯。能 掌握基本的写作技能。” 较高要求(六级)能基本上就一般性的主题表达个人观点,能写所学专业论文的英 文摘要,能写所学专业的英语小论文,能描述各种图表,能在半小时内写出不少于 160 词的短文,内容完整,观点明确,条理清楚,语句通顺。

评分标准及级别
阅卷级别共分五等:2 分、5 分、8 分、11 分及 14 分。 2 分—条理不清,思路紊乱,语言支离破碎 或在部分句子均有错误,且多数为严重错误。 5 分—基本切题。表达思想不清楚,连贯性差。有较多的严重语言错误。 8 分—基本切题。有些地方表达思想不够清楚,文字勉强连贯;语言错误相当多,其中有一 些是严重错误。 11 分—切题。表达思想清楚,文字连贯,但有少量语言错误。 14 分—切题。表达思想清楚,文字通顺,连贯性好。基本上无语言错误,仅有个别小错误。 [注:白卷,作文与题目毫不相关,或只有几个孤立的词而无法表达思想,则给 0 分。]

语言的组织技巧
一、文字通顺连贯
英语中的过渡句和连接词是文章通顺连贯的重要标志, 根据语法中的*行和从属结构原 则,一个复合句中必须要有一个连接词,否则句子是不符合语法规则的。如: All flights had been cancelled, the passengers had to go there by train. 本句的两部分都有完

整的主谓,但并没有连接词加以连接,故是错误的,应改为:Because all flights had been cancelled, the passengers had to go there by train.或 All flights had been cancelled, so the passengers had to go there by train.或用分词形式 All flights having been cancelled, the passengers had to go there by train.由以上例子可以看出,复合句内部必须要有连接词,有时 句子之间也需要连接词,而连接词体现的是句子内部和句子之间严谨的逻辑和论证推理关 系,是英文语言最大的价值之一。当然段与段之间还需要过渡句或过渡词组来加以联系,以 达到通顺之效果。 以下是我们对写作中英文逻辑关系以及引导各种逻辑关系连接词和词组的归纳: 总结关系过渡词语 generally speaking, generally, as a general rule, in general, on a larger scale, to take the idea further, to take the above opinion to an extreme, in a sense, in one sense, in a way, to some extent, in my opinion, in my view, as for me, as far as I am concerned, obviously, undoubtedly, in terms of, in conclusion, in short, in brief, in summary, in a word, on the whole, to sum up, to conclude 比较对比关系过渡词语 similarly, likewise, like, too, equally important, the same as, in common, in the same way, on the contrary, on the one hand, on the other hand, otherwise, in sharp contrast, whereas, rather than, conversely, instead, in/by contrast, but, however, yet, nevertheless 列举关系过渡词语 for example, for instance, as an example, as a case in point, such as, namely, that is, like, thus, first, second, third, finally, in the first place, initially, first of all, to begin with, to start with, what is more, furthermore, eventually, besides, in addition (to that), first and foremost, last but not least, next, also, moreover, for one thing, for another 因果关系过渡词语 because (of) as, since, for, owing to, due to, thanks to, on account of, as a result of, result in , (from), consequently, for the reason that, as a consequence, consequently, if follows that, accordingly, therefore, hence 让步关系过渡词语 although, even though, after all, in spite of, despite, granted that 强调关系过渡词语 anyway, certainly, surely, obviously, to be sure, especially, particularly, above all, in deed, in fact, even worse, needless to say, most important of all, no doubt 递进关系 in addition, furthermore, also, moreover, besides, again, and, likewise, what's more 时间顺序 afterwards, at last, at length, immediately, in the meantime, lately, meanwhile, presently, shortly, since, soon, temporarily, thereafter, while 方位序列 in front of, beside, beyond, above, below, inside, outside, on the left, on the right 方式手段 as, as if, as though, the way,by 目的关系 that, so that, lest, in case, for fear that, in order that

二、书写工整,避免严重语言错误。 书写工整,避免严重语言错误。

分析修改下面的作文: Traffic has became an socially problem in big cities. Of course, have a car is a good think, but every people own a car, the streets will became too crowded. Traffic Jams occurred on the rush hours and accidents happened more often. One way to solving this problem is develop group transportion system. Such as, we should buy more bus and built more roads. And underground trains is also a good solution. Another way is to reduce the big city’s population. Our country population control is the wise and necessary police. If big city people reduce, traffic will less crowded. 写作中常见错误归纳 语法错误 · 时态错误 在描述过去发生的事情时要用过去时, 如果是一般事实应该用现在时……。 这些语法规 则是大家耳熟能详的,但落到笔下就容易忘记。 · 一致性,尤其是主谓搭配 有些同学写下了主语,但是写谓语的时候就把主语扔到一边去了。比如写了 “The people…”,后面的系动词却成了 “is…”。集合名词(army, audience, cabinet, class, company, committee, crew, crowd, family, government, group, party, population, public, staff, team 等) 作主 语,如果指整体,则谓语动词用单数;如果指具体成员,则谓语动词用复数。表示时间,距 离,价格等的复数名词或短语,如果强调整体,谓语动词用单数;如果强调具体数量,则谓 语动词用复数。 单数名词如果跟着 along with, as well as, besides, but, combined with, except, in addition to, rather than 等时, 谓语动词用单数。 但用 either…or…, neither…nor…, not only…but also…, or 等连接的名词作主语时,谓语动词需要与最*的那个主语保持一致。 · 代词指代的一致 如下面这个句子: We’re going to meet a lot of difficulties, but I believe we’ll overcome it. · 句子不完整 有的同学写了*刖洌屯讼掳刖洹K孕赐暌桓鼍渥右院笠邢冈俣烈槐椋绻 得不对,需要回头补全句子。如 People who know the harmfulness of smoking if they are careful. · 人称转换错误 这个毛病是绝大部分同学都容易犯的。 我们在写作时, 一篇文章里面不能出现太多的人 称。另外在我们的文章中最保险的人称代词是 “we”,因为 “we”可以指“你,我,她/他”任 何人。而且如果用 “we”,那么最好通篇文章都用,即使要有所变化,也最多再用一个 “I” 或 “they”就行了。 · 比较级使用错误 不少同学使用形容词或副词的比较级时出现错误,主要是因为中学的基础不是很牢固。 如经常会看到这样的用法: more better than There are many advantages than… I have as much twice apples than you do… · 冠词用法错误 如:a easy job, City of the Beijing, He is a brightest student in his class. · 介词用法错误

介词一般都比较简单,但往往是简单的词用法最多,所以也最难掌握。这些词的用法非 常灵活,需要多读,多写才能正确掌握。如下面的句子: This machine is superior than (to) the old one. The stamps I have are identical for his. In(On) condition that… · 大小写错误 一般来说,每一句的首字母应该大写,人名地名的首字母和专有名词的首字母大写。但 有些同学容易忘记。如: it is well-known that smoking is harmful to people’s health. I went to beijing yesterday. How To Deal With The Problem Of Smoking is a huge task. 拼写错误 这方面的错误相当普遍,而且较难根除。因为大家背单词的时候有时背得并不牢。尤其 是大家经常做客观题,只要知道应该选哪一个答案就可以了,并没有仔细背住单词的拼写。 要解决这个问题,大家需要背单词时不仅能“识别”,而且能“使用”,需要多背多写。下面是 一些经常容易搞混淆或拼错的单词: environment-------环境,容易写成 enviroment government--------政府,容易误拼成 goverment modern-------------现代的,容易拼成 morden delighted-----------感到高兴的; delightful--------使人高兴的 economic-----------有关经济的; economical----节俭的,经济的 historic--------------有历史意义的; historical-------关于历史的 considerate---------关心别人的; considerable----相当大的,相当多的 sensible-------------合理的,可感知的; sensitive---------敏感的 credible-------------可信的; credulous--------容易轻信的 continual------------持续的,中间有间隔; continuous-------持续的,中间没有间隔 satisfied-------------满意的; satisfactory-------令人满意的 tired------------------疲倦的,累的; tiresome----------令人疲倦的 farther----------------更远,表示距离; further------------进一步,表示程度 industrial-------------工业的; industrious--------刻苦的,努力的 respectable---------受人尊敬的; respectful----尊敬别人的; respective---各自的 imaginary------想象中的; imaginative-----想象力丰富的; imaginable-----可以想象的

三、词语的使用
选 词 多用*义词 make manufacture buy purchase finish accomplish end terminate use utilize love affection agree accord discussion controversy tell inform enough sufficient

speed velocity car vehicle open unclose choice alternative She is not a friend but a nodding acquaintance. 区分具体与抽象的词 词从语义上可分为具体与抽象两种类别,例如: 抽象 具体 good kind, honest, generous, warm-hearted, selfless, friendly laugh smile, chuckle, snigger scientist physicist, biologist, chemist fish shark, salmon, perch, eel tree shrub, bush, pollard, oak, plane, pine, willow 抽象词意范围大,概括力强,但给人以空洞的感觉,适合于文章的开头和结尾等总结性 部分。具体词意义有针对性、个性和精确性,给人以确切的概念,适合用于段落中细节的刻 画, 论点的阐述以及事物的描写。 如果用抽象的词来表达具体的事物, 便会给人笼统的感觉: a. 抽象: The man is good. 具体: The man is selfless. b. 抽象: There are three men in the room. 具体: There are three little boys in the room. 善于使用代词 A scientist draws conclusions by studying the facts he collects. Such symbols as are used to represent chemical elements should be firmly kept in mind.

四、句式变换
在了解组织句子的四个特点之后,我们重点看一下句子组织形式的多样化,即在 120- 150 词内,尽量使用不同的句子形式,常用的句型如下: 主语从句 定语从句 (限定性和非限定性) 状语从句 (时间,原因,地点,条件,让步等) 分词短语做定语或状语 强调句 倒装句 省略句 What 句型 设问句 主语和主语从句 名词、代词、动名词、不定式以及名词性从句都可以作主语。后三种,学生在写作时用 起来不是很熟练,但却很有价值,可以在很大程度上提高语言质量。下面我们看几组例句: 动名词作主语 Listening to some light music will help you calm down. Talking to a person like him is just like talking to a deaf.

不定式作主语 To see is to believe. To help others is to help yourself in a sense. To see things as they are, to go right to the right point, to disentangle a skein of thought, to detect what is sophistical, and to discard what is irrelevant is after all, what a university training should be aiming at. 主语从句 主语从句一般由 what, who, which, why, how, when, which, whether…or…等引导, 这些名 词性从句作主语时,我们称之为主语从句。 Why he would reject such a good offer remained unknown all these years. Whether we can succeed or not depends upon our efforts. What you have done for us will be in our memory for ever. 当句子的实际主语太长时,英语*惯用先行代词 it 作形式主语,然后再引出真正的主 语 It is common knowledge that honesty is the best policy. And with our current methods, it is hard to estimate the loss in environmental terms as many negative results may take decades to emerge. 其他常用先行代词 it 作形式主语的句型还有: It is self-evident that… 很明显的是 It goes without saying that… 不用说 It is asserted that.. 有人主张…… . It is believed that.. 据信…… . It is generally considered that.. 人们普遍认为…… . It is hoped that.. 人们希望…… . It is reported that.. 据报道…… . It is said that.. 据说…… . It is supposed that.. 据推测.. . . It is well-known that.. 众所周知…… . It must be admitted that.. 必须承认…… . It cannot be denied that… 不可否认…… It must be pointed out that.. 需指出的是…… . It was told that.. 据传…… . It will be said that.. 有人会说…… . It follows that… 由此可见 It is inappropriate that… ……是不合适的 宾语从句 宾语从句是置于谓语动词之后的名词性从句。大家来看下面几个例子: 1、They believe that the central government’s decision to develop the western part of the country and the success of Beijing’s bid to host the 2008 Olympics will open up further opportunities for a boom in the regional aviation market. 2、We cannot understand why they are so cruel to their beloved parents. 3、Experience from foreign countries suggests that no aircraft manufacturers can survive depending only on their domestic market.

写作中常用的跟宾语从句的谓语动词以主语是 We 举例如下: We assume that… 我们设想、假设…… We suggest that… 我们认为、建议…… We hold/maintain/ that… 我们认为…… We stress that… 我们强调…… We admit that… 我们承认…… We deny that… 我们否认…… We hope that… 我们希望…… We discover that… 我们发现…… We recommend that… 我们推荐、建议…… We mention that… 我们提到…… 表语从句 表语从句是主语+系动词+从句所构成的语句,其中系动词包括三类: · be 的其各种形式; · 表示变化的词如 go, become, turn; · 表示感觉的词,常有“……起来”的含义如 feel, smell, taste, look, sound 等。 大家看下面的例句: That is why so many people want to work in the government. This is where she lived when she was young. Quality is what counts most. The problem is not who will go, but who will stay. The assumption is that things will improve. That is how we beat them in the contest. What he wants to know is if you may agree. What we want to know is whether the government may take measures to tackle this problem. The question is which one you may choose. 倒装句式 倒装句式是指主语和谓语或表语动词的位置颠倒,又分为部分倒装和全部倒装。 部分倒装是指谓语中的一部分,如助动词 do, does, did, can, may, should, ought to, must, have, 系动词 be 等放在主语前面,其余部分包括谓语动词仍在主语后面。 部分倒装的情况: · 虚拟语气的条件句,省略 if,同时将 had, were, should 提到主语之前 Were it not for your help, we couldn’t have arrived there. · so/such...that 用于句首时,后面要倒装 So little did he know about the subject that he had to stay up preparing for the exam. · as, though, no matter how (what), however 引导让步状语时,从句需倒装 Young as he is, he has accomplished a lot. However cold it is, he will go swimming in the lake. · 用于 so, neither, nor 后面 He didn’t go to the concert, neither did his family. · 表示否定意义的词 如 no, hardly, never, scarcely, seldom, barely, rarely, no longer, not until, no sooner...than, hardly...when, not only...but also, not, little, at no time, by no means(决不), on no account(决 不), in no case, in no way, under/in no circumstances 等放在句首时后面主谓要倒装。

Under no circumstance and at no time shall we be the first to use nuclear weapons. On no account are visitors allowed to feed the animals in the zoo. Hardly had I arrived when a quarrel broke out. · Only + adverb(副词), prepositional phrase(介词短语), adverbial clause(状语从句) 置于句首时,后面的主谓需要倒装。 Only in this way can we hope to solve the problem of environmental pollution. 全部倒装 全部倒装是指包括表语和状语在内的整个谓语放在主语之前, 它的语序是: 表语或状语 +谓语动词+主语。全部倒装应用的情况 · 用在作为地点状语的介词短语后面 On the bed lay the dying patient. · 当用作表语的形容词或分词置于句首时 Great and spacious and beautiful is our beloved motherland. · here/there/now/then/hence 置于句首而主语不是人称代词时 Here comes the bus. 排比*行结构 排比*行结构是句子连贯的表现形式与标志之一, 可以用来陈述一系列事实, 也可并列 相同的语言成分。名词、冠词、形容词、副词、语法结构相同的词组,分词短语、主句或分 句都可以*行排比。大家看下面的例子: That means listening to music of all schools and all periods, old and new, conservative and modern.

五、段落组织技巧
(一)开头段 开头段的作用是概括陈述主题,提出观点或论点,表明写作意图,要求语言精练,直接 切入主题或引出观点, 一般不对主题进行深入的探讨, 具体的论证或说明描述应该在中间段 落进,开头段一般写三、四句即可。在组织开头段时要注意避免以下几点: · 开头偏离主题太远,否则会容易导致切题不准,主题不明 ·使用抱歉或埋怨之词句,因为社会主旋律是倡导积极向上的思想 ·内容不具体,言之无物,使用不言自明的陈述,给人以充数累赘之感 四级写作中常用的开头段的表达方法举例如下: ·1. 使用引语(use a quotation) 使用引语( ) 使用一段名人名言,或人们常用的谚语、*语,以确定文章的写作范围和方向。 如: “Great minds must be ready not only to take the opportunity, but to make them.” Colton, a great writer once remarked. But it still has a profound significance now. To a person, in whose lifetime opportunities are not many, to make opportunities is more essential to his success. 分析:开头引用 Colton 的名言说明“创造机会”对于成功的重要性,点明主题。 2. 引用具体或粗略的数据 (use figures or statistics) ) 当然对于图表题型,该种方法是必须的选择,具体做法是给出一些具体或粗略的数据, 然后作出概括性分析,点明主题或引出需要论述的问题。 如: As is demonstrated in the table, more and more college graduates are out of a job in our country, which is a serious problem to our economic development and social security. It is

estimated that in 2004, there are 500,000 unemployed graduates, more than 30% higher than in 2002. 分析: 文章引用 2004 年找不到工作的毕业生达到 50 万这一数据来说明大学生找工作难 这一现象的严重性,很有说服力。 3. 提出问题(ask a question) 提出问题( ) 提出有争议或探讨性的具体问题,然后加以简要回答或展开引导性简短讨论。 如: What do you want from your work· Money· Promotions· Interesting challenges· Continual learning· Work-based friendships· The opportunity to develop your own idea and potentials· Though we are all individuals and so our answers will differ, all agree that work provide more than material things. 分析:文章开头提出“你想从工作中得到什么”这一问题,然后自问自答,指出工作除了 物质利益,还可以给我们带来很多其它收获这一结论。 4. 给出具体实例或报道(offer relevant examples or reports) 给出具体实例或报道( ) 给出具体生活实例或新闻报道 如: As regards the stress for college students, there has been a heated discussion among the public in the society. It was reported that a student killed four of his classmates just because of a trivial matter. It can be easily seen that pressure has become a serious issue we cannot neglect. 分析:文章通过引用新闻报道的一个实例,说明了大学生心理问题的严重性。 5. 定义法(give definition) 定义法( ) 针对讨论的主题或问题加以定义,然后进行深入探讨。 如: As we all know, practice makes perfect. This is an accumulated experience we inherit from our forefathers, and now it is still widely applied to our daily life. It means that the more we practice, the more likely we are going to do things perfectly. 分析:文章用 It means that 这一句型,说明了 practice makes perfect 的含义。 6. 主题句法(use of topic sentence) 主题句法( ) 文章一开始就以主题句点明全文主题,然后围绕主题内容进行发展。 如: Nowadays one of the serious problems China is faced with is the increasing illiteracy among the adolescents. According to a recent survey by Dr. Li, dean of Educational Department of Beijing Normal University, about 18% of the children between 8 and 15 years old have dropped out of school across the country. 分析: 文章开头即提出中国的文盲现象日益严重这一问题, 然后再用实例数据加以佐证。 开头段的常用核心句型归纳如下,大家可选择使用: · As opposed to generally accepted views, I believe that … · The arguer may be right about …, but he seems to neglect to mention the fact that …. · Although it is commonly agreed that …, it is unlikely to be true that …. · There is an element of truth in this statement, but it ignores a deeper and more basic fact that …. · In all the discussion and debate over …, one important fact is generally overlooked. · On the surface (At first thought), it (this) may seem a sound (an attractive) suggestion (solution / idea), but careful weighing on the mind (on closer analysis / on

second thought), we find that … · Although many people believe that …, I wonder whether the argument bears much analysis · The danger (problem / fact / truth / point) is that…. · I agree with the above statement because I believe that …. · There is a public controversy nowadays over the issue of …. Those who object to … argue that …. But people who favor …, on the other hand, argue that…. · Currently (In recent years / In the past few years / For many years now), there is (has been) a(n) general (widespread / growing / widely held) feeling towards (concern over / attitude towards / trend towards / awareness of / realization of / illusion of / belief in)…. · As far as I am concerned, however, I believe that …. · Now it is commonly (widely / generally / increasingly) believed (thought / held / accepted/ felt / recognized / acknowledged) that …. But I wonder (doubt) whether …

(二)结尾段
结尾段的写作方法可以归纳如下: 1. 总结归纳 简要总结归纳文章要点,以便深化主题印象。如: In conclusion I would like to say that children need to be understood but children also need to understand their parents. It is only when parents and children come to understand each other that we can solve problems effectively and narrow the generation gap. 分析:文章通过 in conclusion 引出对前面所作论述的归纳,使主题更加明确。 2. 重申主题 再次强调和确定文章开头阐述的中心思想。如: Admittedly, science has created atomic bombs and produced pervasive pollution. But it has transformed the lives of millions of people. It has multiplied man’s energy, hopes, ambitions and understanding. It has elevated and will continue to elevate man intellectually and spiritually. 分析:文章对前文的观点进行了重复,使之更加鲜明。 3. 预测展望 立足当前,放眼未来。如: So to sum up, we should offer our help to all who are in need. We expect to get love from others and we also give love to others. I believe that the relationship between people will be harmonious and our society will be a better place for us to live in. 分析:文章通过对未来积极的展望,说明了爱在生活中的重要性。 4. 提出建议 提出解决问题的途径、方法或呼吁人们采取相应的行动。如: As the issue plays such a key role in our society, sufficient attention should be paid from both the government and the public. The government should make sure that the census is well carried out and the people should be actively involved in the census. 分析:文章在结尾从政府和公众两个角度提出建议,以保证人口普查的顺利进行。 5. 提出问题 提出具有发人深省的问题,从而突出中心思想。如: Old people may choose to live alone for themselves and even embrace this living pattern. But in the deep part of their hearts, they must feel lonely. They need their children to stay with, to talk with, and take care of them. Why can’t young people think of the days when they are getting old·

分析: 文章最有用一个反问句“年轻人为什么不想想自己年老时的情形”来提醒他们将心 比心,设身处地,去关心父母双亲。 6. 引用格言 用格言、谚语或*语总括全文中心思想。如: Many yeas ago, a great philosopher Francis Bacon remarked that “Knowledge … is power.” This can now be translated into contemporary terms. In our social setting, “Knowledge is change”—and accelerating knowledge-acquisition, fueling the great engine of technology, means accelerating change. 分析: 文章借用培根“知识就是力量”名言的结构,指出“知识就是变化”以深化主题,给 读者留下深刻的印象。 结尾段常用的的核心句型归纳如下,大家可根据自己的*惯和需要选择使用: · From what has been discussed above (Taking into account all these factors / Judging from all evidence offered), we may safely draw (reach / come to / arrive at) the conclusion that …. · All the evidence (analysis) supports (justifies / confirms / warrants / points to) a (n)unshakable (unmistakable / sound / just) conclusion that …. · It is high time that we place (lay / put) great (special / considerable) emphasis on the improvement (development / increase / promotion) of …. · It is high time that we put an end to the deep-seated (unhealthy / undesirable / deplorable) situation (tendency / phenomenon) of …. · We must look (search / call / cry) for an immediate action (method / measure) ,because the present (current) situation (phenomenon / tendency / state / attitude) of …, if permitted (allowed) to continue (proceed), will surely (certainly) lead to (result in) the end (destruction / heavy cost) of …. · There is no easy (immediate / effective) solution (approach / answer / remedy) to the problem of …, but … might be useful (helpful / beneficial). · No easy method (solution / recipe / remedy) can be at hand (found / guaranteed) to solve (resolve / tackle) the problem of …, but the common (general / public) recognition of (realization of / awareness of / commitment to) the necessity(importance / significance)of … might be the first step towards change (on the right way / in the right direction). · Following these methods (suggestions) may not guarantee the success in (solution to)…, but the pay-off will be worth the effort. · Obviously (Clearly / No doubt) if we ignore (are blind to) the problem, there is every , chance that …. Unless there is a common realization of (general commitment to) …, it is very likely (the chances are good) that …. · There is little doubt (no denying) that serious (special / adequate / immediate / further) attention must be called (paid / devoted) to the problem of …. · It is necessary (essential / fundamental) that effective (quick / proper) action (steps /measures / remedies) should be taken to prevent (correct /check / end / fight) the situation (tendency / phenomenon). · It is hoped (suggested / recommended) that great (continuous / persistent / sustained / corporate) efforts should be made to control (check/ halt / promote) the growth (increase / rise) of ….

· It is hoped that great efforts should be directed to (expended on / focused on) finding (developing / improving) …. · It remains to be seen whether …, but the prospect (outlook) is not quite encouraging (that rosy). · Anyhow, wider (more) education (publicity) should be given to the possible (potential / grave /serious / pernicious) consequences (effects) of …. · To reverse (check / control) the trend (tendency) is not a light task (an easy job), and it requires (demands / involves / entails) a different state of mind towards (attitude towards / outlook on) …. · For these reasons, I strongly recommend that …. · For the reasons given above, I feel that ….

(三)中间段
再看一下中间段落的组织。中间段的任务是依据开头段所交代的内容来阐述文章的论 点,围绕主题或论点展开讨论,或就具体要求进行描述和说明。 中间段是文章的正文,其作用是从不同的层面对文章主题进行具体和详实的解释和论 证。中间段篇幅一般比开头段和结尾段长,每段有相应的主题句,包含定义、解释、描写等 手法,说明主题思想的扩展句采用实例、数据或个人经历等写作手段,当然不同种类的段落 采用不同的扩展手段。 中间段有以下具体特点: · 所涉及内容应该准确、清楚,颇具说服力; · 段落中一定具备主题句; · 段落内容应该保持完整、统一,没有说明不足之处或多余冗长的细节; · 内容顺序安排合理,逻辑性较强; · 段落之间连贯自然; · 段落中讨论的内容主次分明,材料比例适当; · 词与句型运用合理并且有变化。 常用的中间段展开方法归纳如下: 1. 列举法 例: Eating wild animals gives rise to a lot of negative effects. In the first place, as many wild animals carry parasites, when we eat them, the parasites enter our bodies, thus causing a lot of illnesses. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a case in point. It was reported that the virus derived from a “delicious” animal and the disease has claimed thousands of lives throughout the world and brought great damages to people’s properties. In the second place, since animals are an indispensable part of our environment, the extinction of some animals may disturb the natural balance. Last but not the least important, eating wild animals is cruel. After all, wild animals are our close friends. 分析:文章利用 In the first place, in the second place, Last but not the lease important 列举 了吃野生动物所带来的危害。 2. 比较对比法 例: People who believe in the beneficial side may have some arguments as follows. To begin with, farmers can earn more money by working in the cities. Most of them will send part of their income back home to help their families. What’s more, these farmers will help develop the cities

in many ways. According to a recent survey, most of the construction projects in big cities are actually done by farmers. By contrast, some people argue that farmer migration may give rise to a series of negative effects. They worry that much land will be deserted in the country. In addition, it is also believed that rising crimes in cities are partly related to this migration. 分析:文章利用 By contrast 对农民工迁移到城市这一现象所带来益处与弊端进行了对 比分析。 3. 因果法 例: The hamburger is the most popular food item in the United States. Every year Americans consume billions of them. They are sold in expensive restaurants and in humble diners. They are cooked at home on the kitchen stove or over a barbecue grill in the backyard. Why are they so popular· First, a hamburger is extremely easy to prepare. It is nothing more than a piece of ground beef, cooked for a few minutes. Then it is placed in a sliced bun. Nothing could be simpler. Even an unskilled cook can turn out hundreds of them in an hour. Besides that, the simple hamburger can be varied in many ways. You can melt some cheese on top of the beef to create a cheeseburger. You can also add some grilled bacon for an interesting flavor contrast. In addition, you can garnish the hamburger with other things such as lettuce, tomato, onion, mushrooms, avocado, pickles, hot pepper, ketchup, relish, mayonnaise, mustard or whatever you wish! 分析: 文章先在第一段的结尾用一问句提出汉堡为什么这么受欢迎, 紧接着下一段以原 因列举展开。 4. 例证法 例: Take my neighbor as an example. There are three members in their family and the two adults were laid off last year. The only child will have to drop out of school next semester. In order to help them, I donated all my money—300 yuan to pay the tuition. And I plan to call on others to donate more money. Though I cannot do a lot, I have given love which is like a lamp in a dark place where light is most needed. 分析: 文中以我帮助邻家孩子的事情为例说明了展示爱的方式, 并在段落结束时重申了 论点。 5. 发展过程法 例: To build your own sunscope, get a carton and cut a hole in one side, big enough to poke your head through. Paste white paper on the inside surface that you will be facing. Then punch a pinhole into the opposite side high enough so that the little shaft of light will miss your head. For a sharper image you can make a better pinhole by cutting a one-inch square hole in the carton, taping a piece of aluminum foil over this hole, and then making the pin-hole in the foil. Finally, tape the box shut and cover all light leaks with black tape. 分析:文章利用 Then, and then, finally 层层展开,说明了制作 sunscope 的方法。 6. 定义法 例: Diligence is the key to success. It means persistent work and does not mean that we are to exert ourselves all day and night without rest, without food and without sleep. The true meaning of

diligence is the careful use of time for the purpose of improvement, or to work persistently without any waste of time. 分析:本段用 means 对 Diligence 进行了定义说明,使之更具体,更容易被理解。 7. 分类法 例: Nowadays the news media mainly consists of radio, television and newspapers. Each type has its own advantages and disadvantages. Newspapers are the oldest form for communicating the news. Today many people still begin their day by reading the morning paper while having breakfast, and end their day by reading the evening paper while having dinner. The invention of the radio has had a tremendous influence on the world. It is able to bring up-to-minute news to distant places in a matter of seconds. Thus the development of the radio has made the world a smaller place. Television is the most recently developed device for communication. It allows us to see as well as to hear the news. The fact that it enables people to see visual images has had a considerable effect on our perceptions of world event. 分析:文章对报纸、收音机和电视三类新闻媒介分开进行说明,指出了每种的特点,使 读者一目了然。 中间段常用的的核心句型归纳如下,大家可根据自己的*惯和需要选择使用: · Although the popular belief is that …, a current (new / recent) study (survey / poll / investigation) indicates (shows / demonstrates) that …. · Common sense tells us that …. · The increase (change / failure / success) in … mainly (largely / partly) results from (arises from / is because of) …. · The increase (change / failure / success) in … is due to (owing to / attributable to) the fact that …. · Many people would claim that …. · One may attribute (ascribe / owe) the increase (decrease / change ) to …, but … is not by itself an adequate explanation. · One of the reasons given for … is that …. · What is also worth noticing is that …. · There are many (different / several /a number of / a variety of) causes (reasons) for this dramatic (marked / significant) growth (change / decline / increase) in …. First, …. Second, …. Finally, …. · There is no evidence to suggest that…. · Why are (is / do / did) …· For one thing, …. For another, …. · Another reason why I dispute the above statement is that …. · It gives rise to (lead to / bring /create) a host of problems (consequences). · There are numerous reasons why …, and I shall here explore only a few of the most important ones. · It will exert (have / produce) profound (far-reaching / remarkable / considerable / beneficial / favorable / undesirable / disastrous) effect (influence) on …. · A multitude of factors could account for (contribute to / lead to / result in / influence) the change (increase / decrease / success / failure / development) in ….

· In 2000, it increased (rose / jumped / shot up) from 5 to 10 percent of the total (to 15 percent / by 15 percent). · By comparison with 2002, it decreased (dropped / fell) from 10 to 5 percent (to 15 percent / by 15 percent). · It accounts for 15 percent of the total. · There were 100 traffic accidents in April, an increase of 5 percent in a five-month period. · By 2002, only (less than / more than / almost / about / over/ as many as) three quarters (40 percent of / one out of five / one in four) college population (graduates / housewives) as against (as compared with) last year (2002) preferred to (liked) …. · With the development ( improvement / rise / growth / general recognition / acknowledgement / realization) of …, vast changes awaits this country’s society. · Now people in growing (ever-increasing / significant) numbers are beginning (coming / getting) to believe (realize / recognize / understand / accept / see / be aware) that …. · According to a(n) recent (new / official) study (survey / report / poll), …. · History (Our society) is filled (abounds) with the examples of …. · The story (case / instance / situation) is not rare (isolated / unique) it is one of many , examples (typical of dozens). · A (one) recent (new / general / nationwide) study (survey / poll / investigation) conducted (taken) at a university by (officials / scientists / experts) indicates (reveals / suggests / shows / proves / demonstrates) that …. · According to (As can be seen in / As is shown in) the figures (statistics / findings / data / graph / table) released (provided) by the government (an institute) it can be learned (seen , / predicted) that …. · There is (no) good (every / little / sufficient / considerable / strong) evidence (proof) to · Personal experience (Examples I heard / read of) leads me to conclude that …. · We must admit the undeniable fact that …. · No one can deny (ignore / doubt / overlook / obscure / brush aside) the fact that …. · Experience (Evidence) suggests (shows) that …. · Take for example … who (that) …. · The same is true of …. · As the saying goes, “….” 六、写作步骤 “三步”曲: Pre-writing: Brainstorming While-writing: We cannot be too careful (做文) Post-writing: Reviewing 七、标点 1、英文没有顿号; 2、英文没有书名号,可用斜体,引号或下划线;专有名词常用斜体表示; 3、句号不同; 4、省略号(…) ; 5、破折号。

作文考试的类型
一、首尾句作文
首尾句作文是根据段首(尾)句续写短文。段首句作文也称主题句作文,因为作文题中所给 的段首句往往是段落主题句。其特点是以题目为中心,一般情况下将文章分为三个段落,每 段首句即为该段的主题句(topic sentences) 。考生要按主题句的要求组织材料,提出论据, 用一些辅助句(supporting sentences)来支持或说明主题句,写英文段首句作文要注意:所 写的内容要紧扣主题, 辅助句应围绕段首句续写。 保证段内每个句子的内容与段首句紧密展 开各个段落,如:例证、因果、定义、比较对比、程序等。要注意句与句之间,特别是段首 句与辅助句之间的自然衔接。另外,所给的段首句有时是一个完整的句子,有时不是一个完 整的句子,只是句子的一部分,这就要求考生一定要审好题。找出其中表示中心思想的关键 词,围绕这些关键词去扩展、描述或说明。 [例 1]Directions :For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition about Women in the Modern World in three paragraphs. You are given the first sentence of each paragraph and are required to develop the idea in completing the paragraph; your part of the composition should be about 100 words, not including the words given. Remember to write clearly. [范文] Women in the Modern World Women are playing an increasingly important role in society. Successful women who are government officials,writers, scientists,doctors and teachers can be found everywhere. It is true that many jobs that once were dominated by men can be done well by women. With the changes in their social role,women ? s position in the family has been improved as well.The husband is no longer the only bread maker in the family and the wife no longer lives on others.They share comforts and hardships with each other. In spite of these changes, the liberation of women has not been completely realized. Women still face many difficulties and obstacles due to traditional roles and limited economic strength.Women still have a long way to go in their struggle for complete equality with men. 第一段首句是讲妇女在社会上的作用, 因而续写的内容紧紧围绕妇女的社会作用, 比如, 妇女可以是政府机关的工作人员、科学家、教师等;第二句的段首句是关于妇女在家庭中的 地位也提高了, 续写的内容也是有关夫妻患难与共; 第三句的段首句是讲妇女解放仍然任重 而道远,续写的部分提出了妇女所面临的问题,整个续写的部分紧扣段首句。 [例2]Directions :Write a composition about What Would Happen If There Were No power in three paragraphs, you are given the first sentence or part of the first sentence of each paragraph: 1 ? Ever since early this century,electricity has become an essential part of our modern life. 2 ? If there were no electric power,... 3 ? Therefore,... [范文] What Would Happen If There Were No Power Ever since early this century, electricity has become an essential part of our modern life. It has played a decisive role in the modern world. Everybody admits that development of our civilization depends on electricity.

If there were no electricity power, our modern world would be in trouble. For instance, all the wheel would stop because without the power the machine would cease working. And all the electrical equipment life would be impossible and in a great mass without electricity. Therefore, we should make better use of elective power. On the other hand, we should educate people to economize on electricity and not to waste energy resources. At the same time we must do our best to exploit more electric resources to meet the requirements of human beings. 第一段的段首句是讲电已经成为人们现代生活中必不可少的部分, 因而接下来的续写部 分应强调它的重要性。 第二段的段首句提出如果没有电的假设, 下面列出没有电将会出现的 麻烦。最后一段指出我们应该节约用电,开拓更多的电力资源。

二、提纲作文
提纲作文是要求考生根据所给出的作文题目和提纲(一般为中文提纲)进行写作。中文提纲 大多是以三个单句的形式出现的。写提纲作文,首先要做的就是审题,并要仔细分析题目中 所列举的提纲。 审完题后应该根据提纲拟出三个英文的主题句, 再在这些主题句的基础上扩 展成文。在扩展的过程中一定要做到条理清楚,开门见山。 [例 1]Directions: For this part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic Good Health according the following outline. Your composition is less than 120 words.Remember that the contents of the outline should all be included in your composition. Outline: 1 ?健康的重要性 2 ?保持健康的方法 3 ?我的做法 [范文] Good Health Good health is very important to everyone. With it, we can study hard, we can serve our country, we can do everything as we like. Without good health, everybody knows that we will fail to do things. We can’t work efficiently, we may stay in hospital, we ? ll become a burden of our family. In my opinion, there are two ways for us to keep fit. First, we must eat a balanced diet. That is to say, we must eat not only eggs, fish and meat, but also some vegetables and fruit everyday. Besides eating properly, drinking clean water is also important. Never get addicted to drinking the soft drink.Second, exercising is a vital part of our daily life. We can do some running in the morning and play football in the afternoon. As a university student, I pay much attention to physical exercises. I do some swimming in summer and some skating in winter. I often play badminton and tennis. I am also careful with my diet. In a way, keeping healthy is not very hard if you just take it seriously. 文章开门见山就点出了主题: Good health is very important to everyone。然后作者很巧妙 地用了 with 和 without 这两个介词从正反两个方面举出了具体的事例来支持自己的观点。 另外,with 和 without 这两个词常用于议论文中,用“正证法”和“反证法”来对各论点或观点 进行论述。 第二段的开头句紧扣提纲, 概括地提出保持健康有两种方法, 并且通过 first, second 这样的指示词,使所列举的事实条理化。最后一段告诉读者自己的做法,也紧扣了提纲。 [例 2]Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic Competition. Your composition should be less than 120 words. Remember that the contents

of the outline should all be included in your composition. Outline: 1 ? The importance of competition 2 ? The function of competition 3 ? My own practices [范文] Competition Competition makes people active and creative. It is very necessary to compete if human society wants to advance. Without it, we would become lazy and nobody would take any responsibility.“Three monks,there will be no drinking water.”This Chinese proverb vividly describes why China ? s productivity was so low before Mr. Deng came into power. At that time, we had the so ? called planned economy. There was no competition at all. So farmers didn ? t work hard. Workers didn ? t work hard. China was on the edge of collapse. Competition can stimulate people to try their best to do things. For example, in 100 ? meter race, each sportsman runs as quickly as possible, trying to win the champion, the same things happen in our society and in our daily life. If a company wants to surpass, it must compete with them. It must raise its efficiency. All the companies doing this will no doubt benefit the whole society and the whole human beings.Being a student, I must compete with other students in our studies. I must study hard in all the fields so that I can be a useful man when I enter the society after graduation. 文章一开头就提出了竞争的重要性。接下来,作者用了两个事例更进一步说明了主题。 最后[例 3] Directions:For this Part,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic Losing and Gaining weight according to the following.Your composition should be less than 120 words.Remember that the contents of the outline should all be included in your composition. Outline: The comparison of one’s body to a car: the similarities and differences of one’s body and one’s car. 1 ? The ways for gaining weight and losing weight. 2 ? My own practices. [范文] Losing and Gaining weight The process of gaining or losing weight can be explained by comparing your car. First, your car can’t run if there is no petrol or diesel oil. Because it needs energy. The same thing happens to your body. Your body also needs energy, the food you eat can be converted into energy,with which you can run, you can talk, you can do everything. Second, if you eat too much you will gain weight. We know a car with too heavy load can ? t run quickly and safely. Maybe it will break down. For the same reason, if you are too fat, it is also very inconvenient and dangerous. You might get heart disease,diabetes, and hypertension and so on. If such things happen, doctor would ask you to lose weight. You eat too much and you don ? t take exercise, you ? ll gain weight. So if you want to lose weight you have to do the opposite. You will be on a diet. You will go out and do some exercises, such as, running, swimming, and playing football,etc. Soon, you ? ll be back in good condition and good shape again.

As far as I am concerned, I get up and go to bed early, do plenty of exercises everyday, and pay special attention to the food I eat as well. I don ? t eat too much meat. Instead, my diet consists of vegetables, fruits, eggs, fish, and beans. By doing this I can keep fit. 作者在这篇文章中先用比较对比法比较了人与车之间的相似之处: 车需要汽油, 人需要 食物;车载的重物过多跑不快,人长得太胖既行动不便也存有隐患,因而过于肥胖 的人就 需要减肥。第一段的最后一句话起了承上启下的作用。接下来作者谈了如何减肥,最后很自 然地过渡到作者自己的做法。 谈到了自己的做法。

三、关键词作文: 关键词作文:
关键词作文是根据作文题目以及所给出的关键词写短文。关键词的数目由几个到十几个不 等。写这种题型的作文,要特别注意关键词的作用。关键词是短文内容发展的“路标”,在作 文思路和写作内容上起着决定乾坤的作用。 因此, 写出的文章要把所给的这些关键词都用上, 可以一句中用上几个词,也可以几句中用上一个词,只要能做到恰到好处即可。而且,要学 会根据所给关键词的语义群分段。如果所给的关键词可以分为三组,那么,短文就可以写成 三段。如果给出的关键词是两组,短文就可以写为两段。再者,要把给出的关键词用在刀刃 上,即各段的主题句以及结尾的主题句都应该有关键词。 [例 1]Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a passage on “The Advantages of Travel” based on the words and phrases given: advantages widen our knowledge, make friends, knowledge or geography,beautiful scenery, different lifestyle, customs and cultures, various foods,practice a foreign language,worth spending the time. [范文] The Advantages of Travel Whenever a college student is asked“What are you going to do this summer vacation?”the most probable answer might be“I am going to have a trip.”It seems that college students are fond of traveling very much. Why?Because travel has numerous advantages. First of all,travel can widen our knowledge of geography,the knowledge of different customs, cultures and lifestyles of different places and countries. Secondly, we can make friends and practice a foreign language through traveling. Finally, travel is the best way of spending time. We can enjoy eating various local foods and seeing beautiful scenery. In a word, we can benefit from travel in more than one way. It is worth spending the time. 作者在第一段中就用上了关键词 travel 和 advantage, 并很巧妙地利用 Because travel has numerous advantages 这样的承上启下的句子来引出下文关于旅游的种种好处。 最后又把关键 词用在了文章的结尾处,强化了主题,不失为画龙点睛之笔。 [例 2]Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a passage on“The Helpful Features of Textbooks” based on the following words given: textbooks, school, levels, kids, purpose, learn, therefore, features,information, contentsts,page, understand, divide, sections, finally, alphabetical, mast, help, quickly, efficiently. [范文] The Helpful Features of Textbooks Textbooks are books that students use in schools. Students at all levels and in all kinds of schools use textbooks. They have certain features in common—features that can help students find and understand the information in them. All textbooks have tables of contents at the beginning. The tables of contents list the chapter

titles, the parts of the chapters,and the page numbers of the parts. These sections are divided again into smaller parts with headings and sub ? headings. Finally, most textbooks have an index at the back of the book. The index lists all the topics in the book in alphabetical order, and gives their page numbers. These are the features of most textbooks, which help students find and understand the information in textbooks quickly and efficiently. 文章一开头用定义法给教材下了个定义。 接下来具体说明教材的主要特征。 最后一段与 第一段相呼应,并重复和强调了几个关键词中的关键词,比如 textbooks,information 等。

四、命题作文
命题作文要求就所给的作文题目进行写作。与其他作文相比,命题作文具有较大的自主性。 因为同样的一个题目可以从不同的角度、用不同的文体来进行写作。例如“My Teacher”这个 题目可以写成一篇记叙文,也可以写成一篇描写文。不管用什么文体,也不管从哪个方面来 写,只要写出的文章切题、流畅、条理清楚、语言正确就是一篇好文章。然而,这种较大的 自主性也会使考生感到困难。因为在有限的 30 分钟之内,要形成提纲,并写成短文并不是 件易事。这就要求考生在写命题作文时首先一定要审好题,要仔细分析题意,搞清楚题目所 涉及的范围,确定文章的中心思想,切忌跑题。再者,要选择正确的文体。最后,要围绕文 章的中心思想,将写作素材进行分析、归类并写好写作提纲,包括:引言句、主题句和结尾 句。 [例 1]Fake Commodities Markets all over the country are swamped with fake and poor commodities. This has harmed greatly the state ? s interests and people ? s health. For example, false poison made in a factory not only can ? t kill mice, but also gives them immunity and makes them healthier. The cause of this serious situation is that some enterprises only want to get benefit. What's more,some local governments, for the purpose of local protection, don't investigate such activities,on the contrary, they even support them. The judicial organs don ? t punish the offenders strictly. We hold that the whole society should pay greater attention to these illegal activities, and these illegal activities should be punished according to the law. The leaders in charge should take effective measures to stop these harmful activities. Consumers should learn to protect their own interests, and not to buy fake commodities. In this way, we can at last wipe out fake commodities and leave no room for them. 作者把这个题目写成了一篇说明文。 一开始先指出了假冒伪劣产品的危害。 接下来分析 了这一情况产生的原因,最后呼吁全社会都来关注这个问题。 [例 2]Haste Makes Waste There is an old Chinese saying,“Haste makes waste.”It was true in the past, and it is still true in many cases today. Usually, if you act faster, you can reach your goals earlier. But it isn ? t always the case. If you emphasize only on speed but ignore the quality of your work, you will get the opposite result. Suppose you are preparing for your final examination. You have so many things to do that you don ? t have enough rest. You have to read and write continuously. The result is that your brain is less and less efficient, and the situation goes from bad to worse. All your efforts become fruitless. On the contrary, if your preparation follows a carefully worked out plan,your work will be effective. Consequently you will take part in the examination confidently.

Whatever you do, please remember the saying—Haste makes waste. If you can properly understand its meaning, you’ll benefit a lot from it. 作者在文章的开头通过重复作文的题目巧妙地点了题, 接下来用具体的事例来说明这一 众所周知的道理。

五、图表作文
图表作文要求考生用文字材*淹急碇兴峁┑男畔⒆既贰 完整地表达出来。 在写作图表作 文时, 首先要仔细观察并分析图表, 以及题中所给出的有关信息, 比如, 作文题,英文提纲、 英文提示、英语关键词等。在分析图表时,要抓住与主题有关的信息,要发现数据呈现的规 律,要充分利用图表中的图形、数据等去说明主题。但是注意不要过多地引用数据,以免造 成滥用数据的后果。另外,在写作图表作文时可以套用一些常用词汇或表达方式,这将有助 于你写出较为地道的图表作文。例如: ①As can be seen from the table (graph, form) that... ②From the above table it can be seen (concluded) that... ③A careful study of the table shows that... ④The number (percentage) is 3 times as much as that in 2000. ⑤It has decreased (fell, dropped) about twice, compared with (as compared with, as against) that of 2000. ⑥In 2001, it increased (went up, rose) from 5 to 15 percent of the total (to 15 percent, by 15 percent). [例 1] Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition of no less than 100 words on Changes in People’s Diet. Study the following table carefully and your composition must be based on the information given in the table. Write three paragraphs to: 1. State the changes in people’s diet(饮食)in the past five years 2. Give possible reasons for the changes 3. Draw your own conclusion You should quote as few figures as possible. Kinds1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 Grain 49% 47% 46.5% 45% 45% Milk 10% 11% 11% 12% 13% Meat 17% 20% 22.5% 23% 21% Fruit and Vegetable 24% 22% 20% 20% 21% Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% [范文] Changes in People’s Diet As can be seen in the table, there have been great changes in people’s diet in the past five years. Grain used to be the Chinese main food, but now it is playing a less important role in people ? s diet, while the consumption of some high ? energy foods, such as milk and meat, has increased steadily. What caused these changes? I think the reasons are as follows: First,the open policy brings the people opportunities to earn a lot of money.Second,people nowadays pay more attention to the structure of their diet.They are seeking the most reasonable diet structure, which will do good to their health.

From the above, we can see that,with the development of the country,the level of the Chinese people’s life has changed in the past five years.I’m sure there will be greater changes in the future. 文中第一句话就明确告诉读者这篇作文是一篇图表作文。 接下来根据图表分析了在过去 的五年中人们的饮食结构都发生了哪些变化, 最后预测将来人们的生活水*还会发生更大的 变化。尽管在这张图表中有很多数据,但作者并没有过多地引用这些数据,而是通过数据把 要说明的问题点了出来。

六、书信作文
书信是一种应用非常广泛的应用文形式之一。 英文书信的种类很多, 但可以把它们归为两大 类,一类是私人书信(personal letters) ,另一类是事务书信(business letters) ,例如:申请 信、求职信、推荐信、证明信、感谢信等。英文书信的书写有一定的格式。一封完整的书信 应包括寄信人的地址和日期;收信人的姓名和地址;称呼、正文、结尾和签名。 一、书信的格式 英文书信的格式与汉语不尽相同,具体表现在信封的写法和英文信的结构两方面。 1. 信封的写法 在信封正面左上方写下发信人姓名、地址,在信封中间偏右一点,写下收信人的姓名、 地址。姓名单独占一行,地址和名称按从小到大的顺序。一般信封的写法有两种形式,第一 种为并列式(block form) ,即每行开头要*齐,例如: Li Ming Chinese Department Beijing University Beijing, P. R.China Mrs. Mary Smith 26 Long Street London, N. W. 16 Great Britain 第二种为缩进式(indented form) ,即每行开头都要向右*降饺鲎帜福纾 Li Ming Chinese Department Beijing University Beijing, P.R. China Mrs. Mary Smith 26 Long Street London, N. W. 16 Great Britain 2. 信的构成 英文信一般由六部分组成。 下面的实例可以说明英文信的构成, 实例之后还有对英文信 结构的详细说明。 发信人地址→ Chinese Department Beijing University Beijing, China 1000 30th Jan 2004

Prof, Mary Smith 26 Long Street London, H. W. 16←收信人地址 Great Britain Dear Madam, ←对收信人的称呼 信的正文 结束语→Sincerely 签名→Li Ming (1)写信人地址和发信日期 写信人地址和发信日期通常写在信纸右上方,先写地址,后写日期。日期的写法英美不 尽相同,以下几种写法皆可: Jan. 30, 2002 Jan. 30th, 2002 30th Jan. 200230 Jan, 2002 (2)收信人姓名和地址 收信人姓名、地址写在左上方,低于写信人地址和发信日期一至两行,一般要在收信人 姓名前加上尊称或头衔,如 Mr., Mrs., Prof., Director 等,如: Prof. Wang Chinese Department Beijing University (3)对收信人的称呼 对收信人的称呼自成一行,写在收信人姓中、地址下面空一行外,信纸左边顶格写,称 呼一般以 Dear 开始。 (4)信的正文 信的正文是信的主体部分, 一般在呼语下面空两行开始写, 每段的第一行都要空一个字 母,正文部分既要内容完整,条理清楚,又要注意必要的礼节。 (5)结束语和谦称 在信的结尾处发信人对收信人往往使用一种谦称。 这部分写在正文下面一至两行处, 一 般在信纸中间或偏右的地方写起,首字母要大写,末尾用“,”。常用谦词有: Yours truly, Truly yours, Faithfully yours, Yours faithfully, Respectfully yours, Yours respectfully, Yours lovingly, Yours, Yours ever 等。 (6)发信人签名 信末的签名一般低于结束用语一至两行,从信纸中间偏右的地方写起。一般要签全名, 除非是自己十分熟悉或亲密的人。有时,还要写上发信人的职务或头衔。 另外,有时信中还有附件,这时要在信的左下角注明 Encl(enclosure)或 Enc.,如: Enc. Drive License 附驾驶执照 如果在写完信后,又有需要补充的内容,可在左下方写 P. S. (postscript) 。 二、英文书信实例 1.求职申请信要写明你要申请的工作或职务,你的学历、能力或你的特长。求职申请信 的写作要做到简单、明了,要用简洁的语言清楚地反映你的才能、成绩、经历。申请信主要 用于申请入学、学术交流等。这类信件应写明本人的意愿、申请的理由。求职申请信的常用 句型有: ①I’d like to apply for the job (post, position) advertised... ②In answer to your advertisement, I wish to apply for... ③I have had the experience of...

④I am very interested in (keen on) ... ⑤I shall be much obliged if you will give me an opportunity for interview... ⑥I am writing to you to apply for admission to your university to pursue my Ph. D. Degree. [例 1]Graduate School of Stanford University Stanford University P. O. Box 616 U. S. A May 12, 2002 Foreign Affairs Office Beijing University Beijing, P. R. China Dear Sirs, I am a post graduate student at the Graduate School of Stanford University. I focus my studies on Chinese culture. Upon graduation, I would like to come to your university as an English instructor or tutor. I have been studying the Chinese Language and culture for the past two years in Stanford. I would like to continue my studies in China as an English instructor. In addition to my extensive educational background, I have computer and baseball coaching experience, which may also be of benefit to your university. Enclosed is a resume concerning my educational background. I look forward to your reply. Sincerely yours, John Smith [例 2] English Department Beijing University Beijing, China Feb. 16, 2002 The Graduate School Hawaii University P. O. Box 135 Dear Sir, My name is Gao Ying. I was enrolled in English Department of Beijing University in 1994. During my four years of study, I was a top student, and received good grades in all my courses. After my graduation, I continued to study in American literature and obtained my M. A. degree in 2001. With a view to further studies, I am writing to you to apply for admission to your university to pursue my Ph. D. in the field of world literature. Thank you very much for your consideration. I am looking forward to hearing from you. Sincerely yours, Gao Ying 2.邀请信一般分为正式和非正式两种。熟悉的朋友之间可采用非正式的形式,即正文用 第一人称写,称呼也可以随便一些。写邀请信时要做到语言朴实,态度热情,要说明邀请的 原因、活动地点和时间。用词要清晰明了;信函内容应简短,不要使用太多描绘性语言。如

果要求被邀请者答复,则要在信上注明“RSVP” (“请答复” )或“Please reply”。被邀请人在 收到信后应立即答复。 如果接受,应先表示感谢和被邀请的喜悦心情,而且需要重复写明出席的时间和地点。 如果谢绝, 除了表示谢意之外, 还需要表达失望或遗憾之感, 然后具体说明不能履约的原因。 邀请信及其回复的常用句型: ①We would like to invite you to... ②How about coming... ③I’d be very pleased ( happy, delighted ) to accept ( come to ) ... ④Thank you for your... ⑤Thank you for your invitation. ...but unfortunately... ⑥I am sorry but I simply can’t come... [例 1]邀请信 March 12, 2004 Dear Wang Hong, We are planning a party to celebrate Professor Zhang ? s fiftieth anniversary of this teaching career and of course we want you to come. It is next Saturday, March 23rd, at eight o ? clock in the university dinner hall. I do hope you can make it. I am looking forward to seeing you. Affectionately yours, [例 2]应邀 Dear Gao Ming, I will be delighted to take part in the party on Saturday, the 23rd of March at eight o’ clock. How nice of you to ask me! I am also looking forward to seeing you and Professor Zhang. Very sincerely yours, Wang Hong [例 3]谢绝信 Dear Gao Ming, It was sweet of you to ask me to attend the party. But now I must regretfully write that I will be out of the city next Saturday, and I therefore can ? t accept your kind invitation for the party on that day. I feel sorry to miss a meeting with you and Professor Zhang. Best wishes to you and Professor Zhang. Sincerely yours, Wang Hong 3.祝贺信是表示庆祝的书信。在西方风俗*惯中,遇到重大的节假日,比如新年、圣诞 节、 生日等以及亲朋好友之间遇到了什么喜事都应写信致以问候或赠送礼品。 贺信的写作要 注意主题明确,中心突出,情感真挚但切记不要言过其实,评价要恰当,要表现出真诚的喜 悦和祝贺。另外,代表单位的贺信应较为正式,措词要严谨、谦恭。祝贺信常用语: ①Congratulate you on... ②It was great to hear that you... ③With my whole congratulations and best wishes for... ④Luck and success in the coming year! ⑤Please accept our best and sincere wishes for the New Year!

⑥Hearty congratulations and all good wishes on this wonderful day in your life! [例 1] March 12, 2004 Dear Wang Ying, We are glad to learn that you are graduating from Beijing University and planning to find a job in a computer company in Beijing. Congratulations on the job well done while at university and good luck to you during your new career. I wish you success in all your undertakings and hope you ? ll enjoy your new career. Anytime you come back home, I wish you would come to my home. Then, we may recall our old happy days. I sincerely hope you will find happiness and success in your new job. Sincerely yours, Li Ping [例 2] March 16, 2004 Dear Li Ping, Please accept my warm congratulations on your election as president of the Students Union. I can’t think of anyone who would have been a better choice. I feel that it is a fine tribute from your schoolmates, and a reward you richly deserve for your many years of splendid service to the students in your school. This honor is also due to your ability in dealing with problems, I sincerely hope you will enjoy your work. Yours truly, Zhu Ying 4.感谢信是为了感谢对方的关心、帮助和支持而书写的信件。在写感谢信时,正文部分 主要写感谢的内容和感激的心情, 可以叙述被感谢的人或事件, 重点放在这一帮助所产生的 效果上。所用的语言要准确、客观,情感要真挚。感谢信常用的句型: ①Thank you very much for... ②I am extremely grateful for... ③I realize that the task took you a great deal of precious time. ④Thank you very much for your hospitality (kindness). ⑤Thank you very much for doing so much to make my trip to Beijing interesting. [例 1]Room 608, Friendship Hotel March 18, 2002 Dear Sir, I am an Englishman, now on a tour in Beijing. This is the first time I am in China. I naturally feel that everything is interesting and strange. Yesterday, when I visited the Great Wall, I was greatly fascinated in this marvelous miracle. Upon my arrival back at the hotel, I found my handbag was missing. There were my passport and a camera in it. I was very worried, feeling that it was completely impossible for me to find it again. At eight o ? clock in the evening, a young man accompanied by a hotel attendant came to my room with a bag in his hand. I at once recognized that it was my bag. I thanked him heartily for his kindness and offered him a reward of 200 U. S. dollars. But he refused to take even a cent. At my insistence, he told me his name when leaving. He is Zhu Ying of your company. Deeply moved by his selfless spirit, I am writing a letter

to commend his noble deed. Please convey my gratitude for him. Yours respectfully, Jack London [例 2] Dear Prof. Wang, Thanks to your letter of recommendation to the CEO of Net Ease. I have been given a place in the editorial department at an encouraging salary. I began work last week and I think that I shall enjoy it very much. Mr. Wu, the CEO had a friendly talk with me this morning. He also mentioned your recommendation. I assured him that I would do my best to live up to your recommendation. Prof. Wang, I want to thank you sincerely for your great kindness. Without your help I couldn ? t have secured this position. Thank you very much. I will do my best not to let you down. Faithfully yours, Li Ming Gao Ming

七、图画作文
图画作文通常是一幅漫画,要求考生仔细观察、分析图画的内容,根据其所隐含的信息写一 篇短文。一般来说,图画反映某种社会现实或现象,或讽刺,或针砭时弊,或呼吁以引起公 众的注意。 由于考试的内容和信息是以图画方式出现, 所以这就对考生的归纳整理信息和分析总结 信息的能力提出了较高的要求。因此,在*时的训练中,考生一定要多加注意。下面我们对 图画作文的写作技巧加以简单说明: 一、图画作文的写作技巧 (1)仔细审题。这是任何写作的关键步骤。要求考生认真阅读短文的命题,分析图画 的内容以及猜测出题者的意图。 (2)确定写作的重点和范围。根据分析的结果编排段落,确定每一段落的写作重点。 按照题目要求把与主题相关的信息进行筛选、归纳和分类。 (3)拟定提纲,拟定提纲实际上就是按照命题和提示的具体要求确定文章的结构。常 见的结构是:陈述事实——分析原因——得出结论或提出建议或做出评论。 二、实例分析 Directions: (1) Study the following pictures carefully and writes an essay of about 200 words. (2) Your essay should meet the following requirements: ①Describe the picture. ②Deduce the purpose of the drawer of the picture. ③Give your comments or suggestions. Note: This picture is copied from 21st CENTURY, Dec. 6, 2001 with some change. There are three figures in this picture: the parents and the child. Clearly enough, the child is being taken to the task severely by the angry mother, while the father beside is clapping his hands and seemingly urged her to pour all the complaints upon the poor child. Take a look at the child, who is crying her heart out. And you ? ll immediately guess the reason why she is being treated like this. Maybe she has done something wrong, or not finished her homework, or failed a quiz. Sympathizing with the child, I doubt about this kind of way of parent’s nurturing children. Judging from the captions(说明文字)in the picture, we can see what happens between parents and

children is actually a reflection of widening generation gap. The generation gap is not a new topic, which has been echoing on every continent for ages. Nowadays, many parents complain that their children are increasingly disobedient and rebellious, whereas children think their parents never understand them, forcing them to do what they don ? t want, and thus hold the least respect for their elders. So what on earth is it that makes the misunderstanding happen? To my mind, there are three reasons which I think are worth mentioning. First of all, parents are the very persons responsible for this widening generation gap. Parents tend to regulate their kids by copying standards and criteria, which they themselves were required of when they were the same age. They are always ignorant of the fact that things are changing with time passing by. Second, parents always expect too much from their kids. They want to realize their unfulfilled wishes through their children by giving them a lot of additional work to do. Thus many children and teenagers would attend countless interest classes such as piano class, calligraphy class, drawing class, etc, besides the normal schooling. Many of them do so not out of curiosity but because of pressure. The third reason may go to the children. They should give their parents more understanding that parents do everything not for their own sake, but for the sake of the children themselves. If they don ? t want to do something, they should tell their parents the reason and try to persuade their parents into agreeing with them instead of keeping silent and acting passively. This will surely cut down on the misunderstanding and promote the mutual understanding, consequently bridging the gap. All in all, the relationship between parents and children is integrated and interacts. If one is bothered, the other will feel it.


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